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She placed strictures on Catholics ukaz of 23 February , mainly Polish, and attempted to assert and extend state control over them in the wake of the partitions of Poland.

Catherine took many different approaches to Islam during her reign. Between and , Muslims were prohibited from owning any Orthodox serfs.

They were pressured into Orthodoxy through monetary incentives. This commission promised to protect their religious rights, but did not do so.

Many Orthodox peasants felt threatened by the sudden change, and burned mosques as a sign of their displeasure. After the "Toleration of All Faiths" Edict of , Muslims were permitted to build mosques and practise all of their traditions, the most obvious of these being the pilgrimage to Mecca , which previously had been denied.

The positions on the Assembly were appointed and paid for by Catherine and her government as a way of regulating religious affairs.

In , Catherine approved the subsidising of new mosques and new town settlements for Muslims. This was another attempt to organise and passively control the outer fringes of her country.

By building new settlements with mosques placed in them, Catherine attempted to ground many of the nomadic people who wandered through southern Russia.

The plan was another attempt to force nomadic people to settle. This allowed the Russian government to control more people, especially those who previously had not fallen under the jurisdiction of Russian law.

Russia often treated Judaism as a separate entity, where Jews were maintained with a separate legal and bureaucratic system.

Although the government knew that Judaism existed, Catherine and her advisers had no real definition of what a Jew is because the term meant many things during her reign.

When Catherine agreed to the First Partition of Poland , the large new Jewish element was treated as a separate people, defined by their religion.

Catherine separated the Jews from Orthodox society, restricting them to the Pale of Settlement. She levied additional taxes on the followers of Judaism; if a family converted to the Orthodox faith, that additional tax was lifted.

Converted Jews could gain permission to enter the merchant class and farm as free peasants under Russian rule. In an attempt to assimilate the Jews into Russia's economy, Catherine included them under the rights and laws of the Charter of the Towns of Catherine tried to keep the Jews away from certain economic spheres, even under the guise of equality; in , she banned Jewish citizens from Moscow's middle class.

In , Catherine declared Jews to be officially foreigners, with foreigners' rights. Catherine's decree also denied Jews the rights of an Orthodox or naturalised citizen of Russia.

Taxes doubled again for those of Jewish descent in , and Catherine officially declared that Jews bore no relation to Russians. In many ways, the Orthodox Church fared no better than its foreign counterparts during the reign of Catherine.

Under her leadership, she completed what Peter III had started: The church's lands were expropriated, and the budget of both monasteries and bishoprics were controlled by the College of Economy.

The endowments were often much less than the original intended amount. Only , rubles of church wealth were paid back. In , to help mend the rift between the Orthodox church and a sect that called themselves the Old Believers , Catherine passed an act that allowed Old Believers to practise their faith openly without interference.

They refused to comply, and in , she deported over 20, Old Believers to Siberia on the grounds of their faith.

Old Believers were allowed to hold elected municipal positions after the Urban Charter of , and she promised religious freedom to those who wished to settle in Russia.

Religious education was reviewed strictly. At first, she simply attempted to revise clerical studies, proposing a reform of religious schools.

This reform never progressed beyond the planning stages. By , Catherine excluded all religion and clerical studies programs from lay education.

She transformed the clergy from a group that wielded great power over the Russian government and its people to a segregated community forced to depend on the state for compensation.

Catherine, throughout her long reign, took many lovers, often elevating them to high positions [97] for as long as they held her interest, and then pensioning them off with gifts of serfs and large estates.

The percentage of state money spent on the court increased from Catherine gave away 66, serfs from —, , from —, and , in one day: 18 August From 19 April , any bureaucrat holding the same rank for seven years or more instantly was promoted.

On 13 September , Catherine decreed that after seven years in one rank, civil servants automatically would be promoted regardless of office or merit.

After her affair with her lover and adviser Grigori Alexandrovich Potemkin ended in , he allegedly selected a candidate-lover for her who had the physical beauty and mental faculties to hold her interest such as Alexander Dmitriev-Mamonov and Nicholas Alexander Suk [].

Some of these men loved her in return, and she always showed generosity towards them, even after the affair ended. One of her lovers, Pyotr Zavadovsky, received 50, rubles, a pension of 5, rubles and 4, peasants in Ukraine after she dismissed him in Her sexual independence led to many of the legends about her.

Catherine decided to have herself inoculated against smallpox by Thomas Dimsdale , a British doctor. While this was considered a controversial method at the time, she succeeded.

Her son Pavel later was inoculated as well. Catherine then sought to have inoculations throughout her empire and stated: "My objective was, through my example, to save from death the multitude of my subjects who, not knowing the value of this technique, and frightened of it, were left in danger".

Poniatowski, through his mother's side, came from the Czartoryski family , prominent members of the pro-Russian faction in Poland; Poniatowski and Catherine were eighth cousins, twice removed by their mutual ancestor King Christian I of Denmark , by virtue of Poniatowski's maternal descent from the Scottish House of Stuart.

Catherine, 26 years old and already married to the then-Grand Duke Peter for some 10 years, met the year-old Poniatowski in , therefore well before encountering the Orlov brothers.

In , Poniatowski served in the British forces during the Seven Years' War, thus severing close relationships with Catherine. Catherine supported Poniatowski as a candidate to become the next king.

She sent the Russian army into Poland to avoid possible disputes. Russia invaded Poland on 26 August , threatening to fight, and imposing Poniatowski as king.

Poniatowski accepted the throne, and thereby put himself under Catherine's control. News of Catherine's plan spread, and Frederick II others say the Ottoman sultan warned her that if she tried to conquer Poland by marrying Poniatowski, all of Europe would oppose her.

She had no intention of marrying him, having already given birth to Orlov's child and to the Grand Duke Paul by then. Prussia through the agency of Prince Henry , Russia under Catherine , and Austria under Maria Theresa began preparing the ground for the partitions of Poland.

Russia got territories east of the line connecting, more or less, Riga — Polotsk — Mogilev. In the second partition, in , Russia received the most land, from west of Minsk almost to Kiev and down the river Dnieper, leaving some spaces of steppe down south in front of Ochakov , on the Black Sea.

Later uprisings in Poland led to the third partition in , one year before Catherine's death. Poland ceased to exist as an independent nation until in the aftermath of World War I.

Grigory Orlov, the grandson of a rebel in the Streltsy Uprising against Peter the Great, distinguished himself in the Battle of Zorndorf 25 August , receiving three wounds.

He represented an opposite to Peter's pro-Prussian sentiment, with which Catherine disagreed. Grigory Orlov and his other three brothers found themselves rewarded with titles, money, swords, and other gifts, but Catherine did not marry Grigory, who proved inept at politics and useless when asked for advice.

He received a palace in Saint Petersburg when Catherine became empress. Orlov died in Their son, Aleksey Grygoriovich Bobrinsky — , had one daughter, Maria Alexeyeva Bobrinsky Bobrinskaya — , who married in the year-old Prince Nikolai Sergeevich Gagarin London, England, — who took part in the Battle of Borodino 7 September against Napoleon , and later served as ambassador in Turin, the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia.

In , Catherine's close friends informed her of Orlov's affairs with other women, and she dismissed him.

By the winter of , the Pugachev revolt had started to threaten. Catherine's son Paul had started gaining support; both of these trends threatened her power.

She called Potemkin for help—mostly military—and he became devoted to her. In , Catherine wrote to Potemkin. Days earlier, she had found out about an uprising in the Volga region.

She appointed General Aleksandr Bibikov to put down the uprising, but she needed Potemkin's advice on military strategy. Potemkin quickly gained positions and awards.

Russian poets wrote about his virtues, the court praised him, foreign ambassadors fought for his favour, and his family moved into the palace.

He later became the de facto absolute ruler of New Russia, governing its colonisation. Potemkin had the task of briefing him and travelling with him to Saint Petersburg.

Potemkin also convinced Catherine to expand the universities in Russia to increase the number of scientists. Potemkin fell very ill in August Catherine worried he would not finish his work developing the south as he had planned.

Potemkin died at the age of 52 in According to a census taken from to , Catherine owned , serfs. A further 2.

At the time of Catherine's reign, the landowning noble class owned the serfs, who were bound to the land they tilled. Children of serfs were born into serfdom and worked the same land their parents had.

The serfs had very limited rights, but they were not exactly slaves. While the state did not technically allow them to own possessions, some serfs were able to accumulate enough wealth to pay for their freedom.

This is why some serfs were able to do things such as accumulate wealth. To become serfs, people conceded their freedoms to a landowner in exchange for their protection and support in times of hardship.

In addition, they received land to till, but were taxed a certain percentage of their crops to give to their landowners.

These were the privileges a serf was entitled to and that nobles were bound to carry out. All of this was true before Catherine's reign, and this is the system she inherited.

Catherine did initiate some changes to serfdom. If a noble did not live up to his side of the deal, the serfs could file complaints against him by following the proper channels of law.

She did this because she did not want to be bothered by the peasantry, but did not want to give them reason to revolt. In this act, she gave the serfs a legitimate bureaucratic status they had lacked before.

For example, serfs could apply to be freed if they were under illegal ownership, and non-nobles were not allowed to own serfs.

In addition, some governors listened to the complaints of serfs and punished nobles, but this was by no means universal. Other than these, the rights of a serf were very limited.

A landowner could punish his serfs at his discretion, and under Catherine the Great gained the ability to sentence his serfs to hard labour in Siberia, a punishment normally reserved for convicted criminals.

The life of a serf belonged to the state. Historically, when the serfs faced problems they could not solve on their own such as abusive masters , they often appealed to the autocrat, and continued doing so during Catherine's reign, but she signed legislation prohibiting it.

For example, she took action to limit the number of new serfs; she eliminated many ways for people to become serfs, culminating in the manifesto of 17 March , which prohibited a serf who had once been freed from becoming a serf again.

During her reign, Catherine gave away many state-owned peasants to become private serfs owned by a landowner , and while their ownership changed hands, a serf's location never did.

However, peasants owned by the state generally had more freedoms than those owned by a noble. While the majority of serfs were farmers bound to the land, a noble could have his serfs sent away to learn a trade or be educated at a school as well as employ them at businesses that paid wages.

Only in this way could a serf leave the farm for which he was responsible. The attitude of the serfs toward their autocrat had historically been a positive one.

Because the serfs had no political power, they rioted to convey their message. However, usually, if the serfs did not like the policies of the tsar, they saw the nobles as corrupt and evil, preventing the people of Russia from communicating with the well-intentioned tsar and misinterpreting her decrees.

Far away from the capital, they were confused as to the circumstances of her accession to the throne. The peasants were discontented because of many other factors as well, including crop failure, and epidemics, especially a major epidemic in The nobles were imposing a stricter rule than ever, reducing the land of each serf and restricting their freedoms further beginning around The serfs probably followed someone who was pretending to be the true tsar because of their feelings of disconnection to Catherine and her policies empowering the nobles, but this was not the first time they followed a pretender under Catherine's reign.

The rebellion ultimately failed and in fact backfired as Catherine was pushed away from the idea of serf liberation following the violent uprising.

Under Catherine's rule, despite her enlightened ideals, the serfs were generally unhappy and discontented. Though Catherine's life and reign included remarkable personal successes, they ended in two failures.

Her Swedish cousin once removed , King Gustav IV Adolph , visited her in September , the empress's intention being that her granddaughter Alexandra should become queen of Sweden by marriage.

A ball was given at the imperial court on 11 September when the engagement was supposed to be announced.

Gustav Adolph felt pressured to accept that Alexandra would not convert to Lutheranism, and though he was delighted by the young lady, he refused to appear at the ball and left for Stockholm.

The frustration affected Catherine's health. She recovered well enough to begin to plan a ceremony which would establish her favourite grandson Alexander as her heir, superseding her difficult son Paul, but she died before the announcement could be made, just over two months after the engagement ball.

She was given the last rites and died the following evening around Later, several unfounded stories circulated regarding the cause and manner of her death.

A popular insult to the empress's legacy at the time is that she died after having sex with her horse. The story claimed that her maids believed that Catherine spent too much unsupervised time with her favorite horse, Dudley.

Given the frequency which this story was repeated together with Catherine's love of her adopted homeland and her hippophilia, it was an easy step to apply this scurrilous story as the cause of her death.

Catherine's undated will, discovered in early by her secretary Alexander Vasilievich Khrapovitsky among her papers, gave specific instructions should she die: "Lay out my corpse dressed in white, with a golden crown on my head, and on it inscribe my Christian name.

Mourning dress is to be worn for six months, and no longer: the shorter the better. On 25 November, the coffin, richly decorated in gold fabric, was placed atop an elevated platform at the Grand Gallery's chamber of mourning, designed and decorated by Antonio Rinaldi.

Catherine was stretched on a ceremonial bed surrounded by the coats of arms of all the towns in Russia. Her face was left uncovered, and her fair hand rested on the bed.

All the ladies, some of whom took turn to watch by the body, would go and kiss this hand, or at least appear to. Catherine appears as a character in Lord Byron 's unfinished mock-heroic poem Don Juan.

Ernst Lubitsch 's silent film Forbidden Paradise told the story of Catherine's romance with an officer.

Lubitsch remade his silent film as the sound film A Royal Scandal , also known as Czarina. Jeanne Moreau played a version of Catherine in the farce comedy film Great Catherine Her rise to power and subsequent reign are portrayed in the award-winning Russia-1 television series Ekaterina.

The television miniseries Catherine the Great stars Helen Mirren. She is played by Elle Fanning in the comedic miniseries The Great From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Catherine the Great disambiguation. Empress of Russia from to Empress of Russia. Peter III of Russia.

Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov by marriage Ascania by birth. Russian Orthodox — prev. Lutheran — This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Russian history, — Main article: Partitions of Poland. Main article: Russian Enlightenment.

See also: Islam in Russia. See also: Judaism in Russia. See also: Serfdom in Russia. Ancestors of Catherine the Great [] 8.

Duchess Sophie Auguste of Holstein-Gottorp 2. Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst Georg Volrath von Zeutsch 5.

Christine Eleonore von Zeutsch Christine von Weissenbach 1. Catherine the Great Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp 6.

Duke Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp Princess Frederica Amalia of Denmark 3. Duchess Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp Princess Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach Duchess Auguste Marie of Holstein-Gottorp.

Biography portal Germany portal Russia portal Monarchy portal. Retrieved 8 November Archived from the original on 9 October See Campbell, Kenneth C.

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Catherine the Great Profiles in Power. Sex With the Queen. Malecka, Anna. First facing Nikki, Katie took the advantage but Nikki swapped places with her twin sister, fooling both Katie and the referee, causing Katie to lose.

From August towards the end of , Paul became embroiled in a rivalry with backstage interviewer Gregory Helms , over whether he was also in-ring performer The Hurricane.

Despite many attempts, Paul could not secure the pin and subsequently lost the match, resulting in both he and Katie Lea leaving ECW. On 11 January , Lea moved back to the Raw brand without her brother Paul Burchill , by competing in a first round tournament match for the vacant Divas Championship but lost to Eve Torres.

On the edition of 24 March of Impact! On 25 August at the tapings of the edition of 1 September of Impact Wrestling , Winter lost the Knockouts Championship back to Mickie James, ending her reign at just 18 days.

Young won the match via disqualification, after Love kicked him in the groin. On 10 December Winter defeated Terra, this match was later named match of the year.

Winter made her debut for House of Hardcore , on 6 October at the promotion's first show, where she lost to Jazz in a singles match.

Leigh made her return to Impact Wrestling under a new name, Katarina , on 10 May episode as Grado 's new girlfriend. Waters has acted in several films.

She also had a recurring role on Emergency: L. Since , she has also served as a horror host of Katarina's Nightmare Theater , a line of DVD editions for vintage cult horror films released by Scorpion Releasing.

Waters was born and raised in West Germany which later became Germany after reunification before relocating to England to attend university.

Waters graduated with a Bachelor of Arts with honours in film and drama. As well as film, Waters has made some small television appearances.

She appeared on the pilot showcase programme Comedy Lab in Her role saw her performing wrestling moves during Karma Chameleon , as sung by the then relatively unknown Russell Brand.

In , she appeared on an episode of Fort Boyard under her ringname Nikita. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. German-born English professional wrestler.

Retrieved 23 December Online World of Wrestling. Archived from the original on 29 August Retrieved 2 March Team Regal, Archer vs.

Retrieved 9 December Family Wrestling Entertainment. Archived from the original on 4 November Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 29 April World Wrestling Entertainment.

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Retrieved 22 October Shimmer Women Athletes. Solie's Title History. Retrieved 1 March Frontier Wrestling Alliance.

Archived from the original on 15 August Retrieved 10 August Archived from the original on 16 September Alternative Wrestling Magazine. Retrieved 28 October Queens of Chaos.

Archived from the original on 12 March German Stampede Wrestling. Retrieved 5 June Retrieved 3 April Archived from the original on 7 June Ohio Valley Wrestling.

Archived from the original on 26 February Archived from the original on 9 March Retrieved 7 February Slam Wrestling. Pro-Wrestling Edge. Archived from the original on 8 April Retrieved 6 April Retrieved 8 August Retrieved 2 July Archived from the original on 30 June Slam Sports.

Retrieved 8 February Retrieved 26 November Retrieved 9 April Hurricane, C. Punk cameo". Retrieved 21 November Retrieved 13 January Retrieved 26 February Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 23 April Pro Wrestling Torch.

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Retrieved 13 March Anderson vs. RVD main event, Flair vs. Fortune, Abyss returns". Retrieved 25 March

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In her accession to power and her rule of the empire, Catherine often relied on her noble favourites , most notably count Grigory Orlov and Grigory Potemkin.

Assisted by highly successful generals such as Alexander Suvorov and Pyotr Rumyantsev , and admirals such as Fyodor Ushakov , she governed at a time when the Russian Empire was expanding rapidly by conquest and diplomacy.

In the south, the Crimean Khanate was crushed following victories over the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish wars , and Russia colonised the territories of Novorossiya along the coasts of the Black and Azov Seas.

In the east, Russia started to colonise Alaska, establishing Russian America. Catherine reformed the administration of Russian guberniyas governorates , and many new cities and towns were founded on her orders.

However, military conscription and the economy continued to depend on serfdom , and the increasing demands of the state and of private landowners intensified the exploitation of serf labour.

This was one of the chief reasons behind several rebellions, including the large-scale Pugachev Rebellion of Cossacks and peasants.

Construction of many mansions of the nobility, in the classical style endorsed by the empress, changed the face of the country.

She enthusiastically supported the ideals of the Enlightenment and is often included in the ranks of the enlightened despots.

Her father, Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst , belonged to the ruling German family of Anhalt [4] but held the rank of a Prussian general in his capacity as governor of the city of Stettin.

Catherine was regarded as a tomboy and was known by the nickname Fike. Her childhood was quite uneventful. She once wrote to her correspondent Baron Grimm : "I see nothing of interest in it.

Her rise to power was supported by her mother's wealthy relatives, who were both nobles and royal relations. Besides her native German, Sophie became fluent in French, the lingua franca of European elites in the 18th century.

The choice of Sophie-Catherine as wife of her second cousin, the prospective tsar Peter of Holstein-Gottorp , resulted from some amount of diplomatic management in which Count Lestocq , Peter's aunt and ruling Russian Empress Elizabeth , and Frederick II of Prussia took part.

Lestocq and Frederick wanted to strengthen the friendship between Prussia and Russia to weaken Austria 's influence and ruin the Russian chancellor Bestuzhev , on whom Empress Elizabeth relied, and who acted as a known partisan of Russo-Austrian co-operation.

Catherine first met Peter III at the age of Based on her writings, she found Peter detestable upon meeting him.

She disliked his pale complexion and his fondness for alcohol at such a young age. Peter also still played with toy soldiers.

Catherine later wrote that she stayed at one end of the castle, and Peter at the other. The diplomatic intrigue failed, largely due to the intervention of Catherine's mother, Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp.

Historical accounts portray Johanna as a cold, abusive woman who loved gossip and court intrigues. Her hunger for fame centred on her daughter's prospects of becoming empress of Russia, but she infuriated Empress Elizabeth, who eventually banned her from the country for spying for King Frederick of Prussia.

Empress Elizabeth knew the family well: She had intended to marry Princess Johanna's brother Charles Augustus Karl August von Holstein , who had died of smallpox in before the wedding could take place.

Catherine applied herself to learning the Russian language with zeal, rising at night and walking about her bedroom barefoot, repeating her lessons; although she mastered the language, she retained an accent.

This practice led to a severe attack of pneumonia in March When she wrote her memoirs, she said she made the decision then to do whatever was necessary and to profess to believe whatever was required of her to become qualified to wear the crown.

Catherine recalled in her memoirs that as soon as she arrived in Russia, she fell ill with a pleuritis that almost killed her. She credited her survival to frequent bloodletting ; in a single day, she had four phlebotomies.

Her mother, who was opposed to this practice, fell into the empress's disfavour. When Catherine's situation looked desperate, her mother wanted her confessed by a Lutheran pastor.

Awaking from her delirium, however, Catherine said: "I don't want any Lutheran; I want my Orthodox father [clergyman].

Princess Sophie's father, a devout German Lutheran , opposed his daughter's conversion to Eastern Orthodoxy.

On the following day, the formal betrothal took place. The long-planned dynastic marriage finally occurred on 21 August in Saint Petersburg. Sophie had turned 16; her father did not travel to Russia for the wedding.

The bridegroom, known then as Peter von Holstein-Gottorp, had become Duke of Holstein-Gottorp located in the north-west of present-day [update] Germany near the border with Denmark in The newlyweds settled in the palace of Oranienbaum , which remained the residence of the "young court" for many years to come.

Bored with her husband, Catherine became an avid reader of books, mostly in French. Count Andrei Shuvalov, chamberlain to Catherine, was well-acquainted with the diarist James Boswell , and Boswell reports that Shuvalov shared private information regarding the monarch's intimate affairs.

She became friends with Princess Ekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova , the sister of her husband's mistress, who introduced her to several powerful political groups that opposed her husband.

Peter III's temperament became quite unbearable for those who resided in the palace. He would announce trying drills in the morning to male servants, who later joined Catherine in her room to sing and dance until late hours.

The classical view of the character of Peter, as having many flaws, is mainly drawn from the memoirs of his wife and successor [ citation needed ].

Catherine became pregnant with her second child, Anna, who only lived to 14 months, in Due to various rumours of Catherine's promiscuity, Peter was led to believe he was not the child's biological father and is known to have proclaimed, "Go to the devil!

She thus spent much of this time alone in her private boudoir to hide away from Peter's alleged abrasive personality. Catherine recalled in her memoirs her optimistic and resolute mood before her accession to the throne:.

The imperial couple moved into the new Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg. The tsar's eccentricities and policies, including a great admiration for the Prussian king, Frederick II, alienated the same groups that Catherine had cultivated.

Russia and Prussia had fought each other during the Seven Years' War — , and Russian troops had occupied Berlin in Peter, however, supported Frederick II, eroding much of his support among the nobility.

Peter ceased Russian operations against Prussia, and Frederick suggested the partition of Polish territories with Russia. In July , barely six months after becoming emperor, Peter lingered in Oranienbaum with his Holstein-born courtiers and relatives, while his wife lived in another palace nearby.

On the night of 8 July OS: 27 June , [31] Catherine the Great was given the news that one of her co-conspirators had been arrested by her estranged husband and that all they had been planning must take place at once.

The next day, she left the palace and departed for the Ismailovsky regiment , where she delivered a speech asking the soldiers to protect her from her husband.

Catherine then left with the regiment to go to the Semenovsky Barracks, where the clergy was waiting to ordain her as the sole occupant of the Russian throne.

She had her husband arrested, and forced him to sign a document of abdication, leaving no one to dispute her accession to the throne.

Peter supposedly was assassinated, but it is unknown how he died. The official cause, after an autopsy, was a severe attack of hemorrhoidal colic and an apoplexy stroke.

At the time of Peter III's overthrow, other potential rivals for the throne included Ivan VI — , who had been confined at Schlüsselburg in Lake Ladoga from the age of six months, and was thought to be insane.

Ivan VI was assassinated during an attempt to free him as part of a failed coup: Like Empress Elizabeth before her, Catherine had given strict instructions that Ivan was to be killed in the event of any such attempt.

Yelizaveta Alekseyevna Tarakanova — was another potential rival. Although Catherine did not descend from the Romanov dynasty, her ancestors included members of the Rurik dynasty , which preceded the Romanovs.

She succeeded her husband as empress regnant , following the precedent established when Catherine I succeeded her husband Peter the Great in Historians debate Catherine's technical status, whether as a regent or as a usurper , tolerable only during the minority of her son, Grand Duke Paul.

In the s, a group of nobles connected with Paul, including Nikita Panin , considered a new coup to depose Catherine and transfer the crown to Paul, whose power they envisaged restricting in a kind of constitutional monarchy.

Catherine was crowned at the Assumption Cathedral in Moscow on 22 September Inspired by the Byzantine Empire design, the crown was constructed of two half spheres, one gold and one silver , representing the eastern and western Roman empires, divided by a foliate garland and fastened with a low hoop.

The crown contains 75 pearls and 4, Indian diamonds forming laurel and oak leaves, the symbols of power and strength, and is surmounted by a The crown was produced in a record two months and weighed 2.

It is one of the main treasures of the Romanov dynasty, and is now on display in the Moscow Kremlin Armoury Museum.

Catherine's foreign minister, Nikita Panin in office — , exercised considerable influence from the beginning of her reign. A shrewd statesman, Panin dedicated much effort and millions of rubles to setting up a "Northern Accord" between Russia, Prussia, Poland and Sweden, to counter the power of the Bourbon — Habsburg League.

When it became apparent that his plan could not succeed, Panin fell out of favour and Catherine had him replaced with Ivan Osterman in office — Catherine agreed to a commercial treaty with Great Britain in , but stopped short of a full military alliance.

Peter the Great had succeeded in gaining a toehold in the south, on the edge of the Black Sea, in the Azov campaigns.

Catherine completed the conquest of the south, making Russia the dominant power in south-eastern Europe after the Russo-Turkish War of — Russia inflicted some of the heaviest defeats ever suffered by the Ottoman Empire, including the Battle of Chesma 5—7 July and the Battle of Kagul 21 July In , a last major Crimean—Nogai slave raid , which ravaged the Russian held territories in Ukraine, saw the capture of up to 20, slaves.

The Russian victories procured access to the Black Sea and allowed Catherine's government to incorporate present-day southern Ukraine, where the Russians founded the new cities of Odessa , Nikolayev , Yekaterinoslav literally: "the Glory of Catherine"; the future Dnipro , and Kherson.

The treaty also removed restrictions on Russian naval or commercial traffic in the Azov Sea, granted to Russia the position of protector of Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire, and made the Crimea a protectorate of Russia.

Catherine annexed the Crimea in , nine years after the Crimean Khanate had gained nominal independence—which had been guaranteed by Russia—from the Ottoman Empire as a result of her first war against the Turks.

The palace of the Crimean khans passed into the hands of the Russians. In , Catherine conducted a triumphal procession in the Crimea, which helped provoke the next Russo-Turkish War.

The Ottomans restarted hostilities in the Russo-Turkish War of — This war was another catastrophe for the Ottomans, ending with the Treaty of Jassy , which legitimised the Russian claim to the Crimea and granted the Yedisan region to Russia.

In the Treaty of Georgievsk Russia agreed to protect Georgia against any new invasion and further political aspirations of their Persian suzerains.

Catherine waged a new war against Persia in after they, under the new king Agha Mohammad Khan , had again invaded Georgia and established rule in and had expelled the newly established Russian garrisons in the Caucasus.

The ultimate goal for the Russian government, however, was to topple the anti-Russian shah king , and to replace him with a half-brother, Morteza Qoli Khan , who had defected to Russia and was therefore pro-Russian.

It was widely expected that a 13,strong Russian corps would be led by the seasoned general, Ivan Gudovich , but the empress followed the advice of her lover, Prince Zubov , and entrusted the command to his youthful brother, Count Valerian Zubov.

The Russian troops set out from Kizlyar in April and stormed the key fortress of Derbent on 10 May. The event was glorified by the court poet Derzhavin in his famous ode; he later commented bitterly on Zubov's inglorious return from the expedition in another remarkable poem.

By mid-June, Zubov's troops overran without any resistance most of the territory of modern-day Azerbaijan , including three principal cities— Baku , Shemakha , and Ganja.

By November, they were stationed at the confluence of the Araks and Kura Rivers , poised to attack mainland Iran.

In this month, the empress of Russia died and her successor Paul, who detested that the Zubovs had other plans for the army, ordered the troops to retreat to Russia.

This reversal aroused the frustration and enmity of the powerful Zubovs and other officers who took part in the campaign: many of them would be among the conspirators who arranged Paul's murder five years later.

Catherine longed for recognition as an enlightened sovereign. She pioneered for Russia the role that Britain later played through most of the 19th and early 20th centuries as an international mediator in disputes that could, or did, lead to war.

She acted as mediator in the War of the Bavarian Succession — between the German states of Prussia and Austria. In , she established a League of Armed Neutrality , designed to defend neutral shipping from the British Royal Navy during the American Revolution.

From to , Russia fought a war against Sweden , a conflict instigated by Catherine's cousin, King Gustav III of Sweden, who expected to simply overtake the Russian armies still engaged in war against the Ottoman Turks, and hoped to strike Saint Petersburg directly.

Denmark declared war on Sweden in the Theatre War. Peace ensued for 20 years, aided by the assassination of Gustav III in Although the idea of partitioning Poland came from the King Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine took a leading role in carrying it out in the s.

In , she formally became protector of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth, which provoked an anti-Russian uprising in Poland, the Confederation of Bar — After the uprising broke down due to internal politics in the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth, she established in the Rzeczpospolita , a system of government fully controlled by the Russian Empire through a Permanent Council , under the supervision of her ambassadors and envoys.

After the French Revolution of , Catherine rejected many principles of the Enlightenment she had once viewed favourably.

Afraid the May Constitution of Poland might lead to a resurgence in the power of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth and the growing democratic movements inside the Commonwealth might become a threat to the European monarchies, Catherine decided to intervene in Poland.

She provided support to a Polish anti-reform group known as the Targowica Confederation. This spurred Russian interest in opening trade with Japan to the south for supplies and food.

Russian local authorities helped his party, and the Russian government decided to use him as a trade envoy. Subsequently, in , the Russian government dispatched a trade mission to Japan, led by Adam Laxman.

The Tokugawa shogunate received the mission, but negotiations failed. The Qianlong emperor of China was committed to an expansionist policy in Central Asia and saw the Russian empire as a potential rival, making for difficult and unfriendly relations between Beijing and Saint Petersburg.

Catherine perceived the Qianlong emperor as an unpleasant and arrogant neighbor, once saying: "I shall not die until I have ejected the Turks from Europe, suppressed the pride of China and established trade with India".

Russian economic development was well below the standards in western Europe. Still, there was a start of industry, mainly textiles around Moscow and ironworks in the Ural Mountains, with a labor force mainly of serfs, bound to the works.

Catherine strongly encouraged the migration of the Volga Germans , farmers from Germany who settled mostly in the Volga River Valley region. They indeed helped modernise the sector that totally dominated the Russian economy.

They introduced numerous innovations regarding wheat production and flour milling, tobacco culture, sheep raising, and small-scale manufacturing.

In , the Assignation Bank was given the task of issuing the first government paper money. It opened in Saint Petersburg and Moscow in Several bank branches were afterwards established in other towns, called government towns.

Paper notes were issued upon payment of similar sums in copper money, which were also refunded upon the presentation of those notes.

The emergence of these assignation rubles was necessary due to large government spending on military needs, which led to a shortage of silver in the treasury transactions, especially in foreign trade, were conducted almost exclusively in silver and gold coins.

Assignation rubles circulated on equal footing with the silver ruble; a market exchange rate for these two currencies was ongoing.

The use of these notes continued until Catherine was a patron of the arts, literature, and education.

The Hermitage Museum , which now [update] occupies the whole Winter Palace, began as Catherine's personal collection.

The empress was a great lover of art and books, and ordered the construction of the Hermitage in to house her expanding collection of paintings, sculpture, and books.

Two wings were devoted to her collections of "curiosities". I hate fountains that torture water in order to make it take a course contrary to its nature: Statues are relegated to galleries, vestibules etc; in a word, Anglomania is the master of my plantomania".

Catherine shared in the general European craze for all things Chinese, and made a point of collecting Chinese art and buying porcelain in the popular Chinoiserie style.

She wrote comedies, fiction, and memoirs, while cultivating Voltaire, Diderot and d'Alembert —all French encyclopedists who later cemented her reputation in their writings.

The leading economists of her day, such as Arthur Young and Jacques Necker , became foreign members of the Free Economic Society , established on her suggestion in Saint Petersburg in Catherine enlisted Voltaire to her cause, and corresponded with him for 15 years, from her accession to his death in He lauded her accomplishments, calling her "The Star of the North" and the " Semiramis of Russia" in reference to the legendary Queen of Babylon , a subject on which he published a tragedy in Although she never met him face to face, she mourned him bitterly when he died.

She acquired his collection of books from his heirs, and placed them in the National Library of Russia. Catherine read three sorts of books, namely those for pleasure, those for information, and those to provide her with a philosophy.

Four years later, in , she endeavoured to embody in legislation the principles of Enlightenment she learned from studying the French philosophers.

She called together at Moscow a Grand Commission—almost a consultative parliament—composed of members of all classes officials, nobles, burghers , and peasants and of various nationalities.

The Commission had to consider the needs of the Russian Empire and the means of satisfying them.

The empress prepared the "Instructions for the Guidance of the Assembly" , pillaging as she frankly admitted the philosophers of Western Europe, especially Montesquieu and Cesare Beccaria.

As many of the democratic principles frightened her more moderate and experienced advisors, she refrained from immediately putting them into practice.

After holding more than sittings, the so-called Commission dissolved without getting beyond the realm of theory. In spite of this, Catherine began issuing codes to address some of the modernisation trends suggested in her Nakaz.

In , the empress decreed a Statute for the Administration of the Provinces of the Russian Empire. The statute sought to efficiently govern Russia by increasing population and dividing the country into provinces and districts.

By the end of her reign, 50 provinces and nearly districts were created, government officials numbering more than double this were appointed, and spending on local government increased sixfold.

In , Catherine conferred on the nobility the Charter to the Nobility , increasing the power of the landed oligarchs. Nobles in each district elected a Marshal of the Nobility, who spoke on their behalf to the monarch on issues of concern to them, mainly economic ones.

In the same year, Catherine issued the Charter of the Towns, which distributed all people into six groups as a way to limit the power of nobles and create a middle estate.

In , the empress described to Voltaire her legal innovations within a backward Russia as progressing "little by little". During Catherine's reign, Russians imported and studied the classical and European influences that inspired the Russian Enlightenment.

Gavrila Derzhavin, Denis Fonvizin and Ippolit Bogdanovich laid the groundwork for the great writers of the 19th century, especially for Alexander Pushkin.

Catherine became a great patron of Russian opera. When Alexander Radishchev published his Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow in one year after the start of the French Revolution and warned of uprisings because of the deplorable social conditions of the peasants held as serfs , Catherine exiled him to Siberia.

Firstly I was very surprised at her small stature; I had imagined her to be very tall, as great as her fame. She was also very fat, but her face was still beautiful, and she wore her white hair up, framing it perfectly.

Her genius seemed to rest on her forehead, which was both high and wide. Her eyes were soft and sensitive, her nose quite Greek, her colour high and her features expressive.

She addressed me immediately in a voice full of sweetness, if a little throaty: "I am delighted to welcome you here, Madame, your reputation runs before you.

I am very fond of the arts, especially painting. I am no connoisseur, but I am a great art lover. I have said that she was quite small, and yet on the days when she made her public appearances, with her head held high, her eagle-like stare and a countenance accustomed to command, all this gave her such an air of majesty that to me she might have been Queen of the World; she wore the sashes of three orders, and her costume was both simple and regal; it consisted of a muslin tunic embroidered with gold fastened by a diamond belt, and the full sleeves were folded back in the Asiatic style.

Over this tunic she wore a red velvet dolman with very short sleeves. The bonnet which held her white hair was not decorated with ribbons, but with the most beautiful diamonds.

Catherine held western European philosophies and culture close to her heart, and she wanted to surround herself with like-minded people within Russia.

Catherine believed education could change the hearts and minds of the Russian people and turn them away from backwardness. This meant developing individuals both intellectually and morally, providing them knowledge and skills, and fostering a sense of civic responsibility.

Catherine appointed Ivan Betskoy as her advisor on educational matters. She also established a commission composed of T. Teplov, T.

Dilthey, and the historian G. She consulted British education pioneers, particularly the Rev. Daniel Dumaresq and Dr John Brown.

The commission studied the reform projects previously installed by I. They submitted recommendations for the establishment of a general system of education for all Russian orthodox subjects from the age of 5 to 18, excluding serfs.

In July , Dumaresq wrote to Dr. John Brown about the commission's problems and received a long reply containing very general and sweeping suggestions for education and social reforms in Russia.

Brown argued, in a democratic country, education ought to be under the state's control and based on an education code.

He also placed great emphasis on the "proper and effectual education of the female sex"; two years prior, Catherine had commissioned Ivan Betskoy to draw up the General Programme for the Education of Young People of Both Sexes.

It was charged with admitting destitute and extramarital children to educate them in any way the state deemed fit.

Because the Moscow Foundling Home was not established as a state-funded institution, it represented an opportunity to experiment with new educational theories.

However, the Moscow Foundling Home was unsuccessful, mainly due to extremely high mortality rates, which prevented many of the children from living long enough to develop into the enlightened subjects the state desired.

Not long after the Moscow Foundling Home, at the instigation of her factotum, Ivan Betskoy, she wrote a manual for the education of young children, drawing from the ideas of John Locke , and founded the famous Smolny Institute in , first of its kind in Russia.

At first, the institute only admitted young girls of the noble elite, but eventually it began to admit girls of the petit-bourgeoisie as well.

Within the walls of the institute, they were taught impeccable French, musicianship, dancing, and complete awe of the monarch. At the institute, enforcement of strict discipline was central to its philosophy.

Running and games were forbidden, and the building was kept particularly cold because too much warmth was believed to be harmful to the developing body as was excess play.

During —, no progress was made in setting up a national school system. She made many educational reforms despite the lack of a national school system.

The remodeling of the Cadet Corps initiated many educational reforms. It then began to take children from a very young age and educate them until the age of The curriculum was broadened from the professional military curriculum to include the sciences, philosophy, ethics, history, and international law.

After the war and the defeat of Pugachev, Catherine laid the obligation to establish schools at the guberniya —a provincial subdivision of the Russian empire ruled by a governor—on the Boards of Social Welfare set up with the participation of elected representatives from the three free estates.

By , Catherine arranged another advisory commission to study the information gathered about the educational systems of many different countries.

He was strongly in favor of the adoption of the Austrian three-tier model of trivial, real, and normal schools at the village, town, and provincial capital levels.

In addition to the advisory commission, Catherine established a Commission of National Schools under Pyotr Zavadovsky. This commission was charged with organizing a national school network, training the teachers, and providing the textbooks.

It also regulated, in detail, the subjects to be taught at every age and the method of teaching.

In addition to the textbooks translated by the commission, teachers were provided with the "Guide to Teachers". This work, divided into four parts, dealt with teaching methods, the subjects taught, the behaviour of the teacher, and the running of a school.

Judgment of the 19th century was generally critical, claiming that Catherine failed to supply enough money to support her educational program. Throughout Russia, the inspectors encountered a patchy response.

While the nobility provided appreciable amounts of money for these institutions, they preferred to send their own children to private, prestigious institutions.

Also, the townspeople tended to turn against the junior schools and their pedagogical [ clarification needed ] methods.

An estimated 62, pupils were being educated in some state institutions near the end of Catherine's reign. This was only a minuscule number of people compared to the size of the Russian population.

Catherine's apparent embrace of all things Russian including Orthodoxy may have prompted her personal indifference to religion. She nationalised all of the church lands to help pay for her wars, largely emptied the monasteries, and forced most of the remaining clergymen to survive as farmers or from fees for baptisms and other services.

Very few members of the nobility entered the church, which became even less important than it had been. She did not allow dissenters to build chapels, and she suppressed religious dissent after the onset of the French Revolution.

However, Catherine promoted Christianity in her anti-Ottoman policy, promoting the protection and fostering of Christians under Turkish rule.

She placed strictures on Catholics ukaz of 23 February , mainly Polish, and attempted to assert and extend state control over them in the wake of the partitions of Poland.

Catherine took many different approaches to Islam during her reign. Between and , Muslims were prohibited from owning any Orthodox serfs.

They were pressured into Orthodoxy through monetary incentives. This commission promised to protect their religious rights, but did not do so.

Many Orthodox peasants felt threatened by the sudden change, and burned mosques as a sign of their displeasure.

After the "Toleration of All Faiths" Edict of , Muslims were permitted to build mosques and practise all of their traditions, the most obvious of these being the pilgrimage to Mecca , which previously had been denied.

The positions on the Assembly were appointed and paid for by Catherine and her government as a way of regulating religious affairs.

In , Catherine approved the subsidising of new mosques and new town settlements for Muslims. This was another attempt to organise and passively control the outer fringes of her country.

By building new settlements with mosques placed in them, Catherine attempted to ground many of the nomadic people who wandered through southern Russia.

The plan was another attempt to force nomadic people to settle. This allowed the Russian government to control more people, especially those who previously had not fallen under the jurisdiction of Russian law.

Russia often treated Judaism as a separate entity, where Jews were maintained with a separate legal and bureaucratic system.

Although the government knew that Judaism existed, Catherine and her advisers had no real definition of what a Jew is because the term meant many things during her reign.

When Catherine agreed to the First Partition of Poland , the large new Jewish element was treated as a separate people, defined by their religion.

Catherine separated the Jews from Orthodox society, restricting them to the Pale of Settlement. She levied additional taxes on the followers of Judaism; if a family converted to the Orthodox faith, that additional tax was lifted.

Converted Jews could gain permission to enter the merchant class and farm as free peasants under Russian rule. In an attempt to assimilate the Jews into Russia's economy, Catherine included them under the rights and laws of the Charter of the Towns of Catherine tried to keep the Jews away from certain economic spheres, even under the guise of equality; in , she banned Jewish citizens from Moscow's middle class.

In , Catherine declared Jews to be officially foreigners, with foreigners' rights. Catherine's decree also denied Jews the rights of an Orthodox or naturalised citizen of Russia.

Taxes doubled again for those of Jewish descent in , and Catherine officially declared that Jews bore no relation to Russians. In many ways, the Orthodox Church fared no better than its foreign counterparts during the reign of Catherine.

Under her leadership, she completed what Peter III had started: The church's lands were expropriated, and the budget of both monasteries and bishoprics were controlled by the College of Economy.

The endowments were often much less than the original intended amount. Only , rubles of church wealth were paid back. In , to help mend the rift between the Orthodox church and a sect that called themselves the Old Believers , Catherine passed an act that allowed Old Believers to practise their faith openly without interference.

They refused to comply, and in , she deported over 20, Old Believers to Siberia on the grounds of their faith.

Old Believers were allowed to hold elected municipal positions after the Urban Charter of , and she promised religious freedom to those who wished to settle in Russia.

Religious education was reviewed strictly. At first, she simply attempted to revise clerical studies, proposing a reform of religious schools.

This reform never progressed beyond the planning stages. By , Catherine excluded all religion and clerical studies programs from lay education.

She transformed the clergy from a group that wielded great power over the Russian government and its people to a segregated community forced to depend on the state for compensation.

Catherine, throughout her long reign, took many lovers, often elevating them to high positions [97] for as long as they held her interest, and then pensioning them off with gifts of serfs and large estates.

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